Hepatitis D, also known as “Delta Hepatitis,” is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV). Hepatitis D only occurs in people who are also infected with the hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis D is spread when blood or other body fluids from a person infected with the virus enters the body of someone who is not infected.
Hepatitis D can be an acute, short-term infection or become a long-term, chronic infection. Hepatitis D can cause severe symptoms and serious illnesses that can lead to life-long liver damage and even death.
People can become infected with both hepatitis B and hepatitis D viruses at the same time (known as “coinfection”) or get hepatitis D after first being infected with the hepatitis B virus (known as “superinfection”). There is no vaccine to prevent hepatitis D. However, prevention of hepatitis B with hepatitis B vaccine also protects against future hepatitis D infection.
Hepatitis delta virus or hepatitis D virus (HDV) was discovered in patients with a more severe form of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. HDV is a subviral satellite of HBV.
HDV is often called a virus but strictly speaking, it does not satisfy the definition of a virus and should be called subviral; HDV infection and assembly of new virus particles depends upon the envelope protein provided by the natural helper virus, HBV. HDV is also called a satellite of HBV because there is no nucleotide homology between the genomes of HBV and HDV.
As nations race to roll out vaccines in the global effort to contain Covid-19 and allow for a return to normal, the rise of dangerous virus variants threatens to prolong the pandemic.
In the UK, the spread of the so-called delta variant, first identified in India, has led officials to send military personnel to hotspots and prompted the government to reconsider easing Covid restrictions on June 21 as planned.
Here, Sam Fazeli, a Bloomberg Opinion contributor who covers the pharmaceutical industry for Bloomberg Intelligence, answers questions about the risks stemming from this variant and more. The conversation has been edited and condensed.
This is not an easy question to answer because the level of genomic surveillance is low in so many countries. Based on data from GISAID, a global effort for sharing and tracking information on viruses, the UK has the highest proportion of the delta variant outside of India, at 70% of its cases.
The US is showing about 5% (and growing) and Germany is at about 2%. Italy and Spain are each at about 3% to 5%. The issue is that many of these countries are going down the road of opening their economies while their full vaccination levels have yet to hit the critical 50% to 70% required for controlling virus spread.
New variant AY.1 / Delta Virus plus may be effects too much, The Delta variant (B.1.617.2) of the novel coronavirus is continuing to evolve, with a new variant
Hepatitis D doesn’t always cause symptoms When symptoms do occur, they often include:
The symptoms of hepatitis B and hepatitis D are similar, so it can be difficult to determine which disease is causing your symptoms.
Beware of new delta virus Plus
Treatment for infection with hepatitis D virus consists primarily of supportive measures in part owing to the fact that HDV is very host-dependent and absent of potentially drugable enzymes in its genome. Observe synthetic liver function markers and mental status closely.
Deterioration of either should prompt early consultation with hospital personnel capable of performing liver transplantation.
Liver transplantation is indicated in patients with fulminant liver failure.
Patients with evidence of decompensated liver disease or with fulminant liver failure should be immediately transferred to a center capable of performing liver transplantation required. the new variant of covid-19 and Delta virus might be difficult to tolerate.
hepatitis D virus infection can be prevented primarily through avoidance of risky behavior factors. To reduce the possibility of parenteral transmission, individuals can practice safe sex methods and take care to not share IV drug needles or supplies.
Pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis with HBV vaccine or HBV immune globulin can prevent HDV-HBV co-infection.
Delta Virus (Hepatitis D) is spread when blood or other body fluids from a person infected with the virus enters the body of someone who is not infected.